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  • C, Erlang, Java and Go Web Server performance test

    I had tested a hello world web server in C, Erlang, Java and the Go programming language.
    * C, use the well-known high performance web server nginx, with a hello world nginx module
    * Erlang/OTP
    * Java, using the MINA 2.0 framework, now the JBoss Netty framework.
    * Go, http://golang.org/

    1. Test environment

    1.1 Hardware/OS

    2 Linux boxes in a gigabit ethernet LAN, 1 server and 1 test client
    Linux Centos 5.2 64bit
    Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5410  @ 2.33GHz (L2 cache: 6M), Quad-Core * 2
    8G memory
    SCSI disk (standalone disk, no other access)

    1.2 Software version

    nginx, nginx-0.7.63.tar.gz
    Erlang, otp_src_R13B02-1.tar.gz
    Java, jdk-6u17-linux-x64.bin, mina-2.0.0-RC1.tar.gz, netty-3.2.0.ALPHA1-dist.tar.bz2
    Go, hg clone -r release https://go.googlecode.com/hg/ $GOROOT (Nov 12, 2009)

    1.3 Source code and configuration

    Linux, run sysctl -p

    net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
    kernel.sysrq = 0
    kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
    kernel.msgmnb = 65536
    kernel.msgmax = 65536
    kernel.shmmax = 68719476736
    kernel.shmall = 4294967296
    kernel.panic = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 8192	873800	8738000
    net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096	655360	6553600
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024	65000
    net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
    net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

    # ulimit -n

    C: ngnix hello world module, copy the code ngx_http_hello_module.c from http://timyang.net/web/nginx-module/

    in nginx.conf, set “worker_processes  1; worker_connections 10240″ for 1 cpu test, set “worker_processes  4; worker_connections 2048″ for multi-core cpu test. Turn off all access or debug log in nginx.conf, as follows

    worker_processes  1;
    worker_rlimit_nofile 10240;
    events {
        worker_connections  10240;
    http {
        include       mime.types;
        default_type  application/octet-stream;
        sendfile        on;
        keepalive_timeout  0;
        server {
            listen       8080;
            server_name  localhost;
            location / {
                root   html;
                index  index.html index.htm;
              location /hello {
                hello 1234;
            error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
                root   html;

    $ taskset -c 1 ./nginx or $ taskset -c 1-7 ./nginx

    Erlang hello world server
    The source code is available at yufeng’s blog, see http://blog.yufeng.info/archives/105
    Just copy the code after “cat ehttpd.erl”, and compile it.

    $ erlc ehttpd.erl
    $ taskset -c 1 erl +K true +h 99999 +P 99999 -smp enable +S 2:1 -s ehttpd
    $ taskset -c 1-7 erl +K true -s ehttpd
    We use taskset to limit erlang vm to use only 1 CPU/core or use all CPU cores. The 2nd line is run in single CPU mode, and the 3rd line is run in multi-core CPU mode.

    Java source code, save the 2 class as HttpServer.java and HttpProtocolHandler.java, and do necessary import.

    public class HttpServer {
        public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
            SocketAcceptor acceptor = new NioSocketAcceptor(4);
            acceptor.setReuseAddress( true );
    		int port = 8080;
    		String hostname = null;
    		if (args.length > 1) {
    			hostname = args[0];
    			port = Integer.parseInt(args[1]);
            // Bind
            acceptor.setHandler(new HttpProtocolHandler());
            if (hostname != null)
            	acceptor.bind(new InetSocketAddress(hostname, port));
            	acceptor.bind(new InetSocketAddress(port));
            System.out.println("Listening on port " + port);
    public class HttpProtocolHandler extends IoHandlerAdapter {
        public void sessionCreated(IoSession session) {
            session.getConfig().setIdleTime(IdleStatus.BOTH_IDLE, 10);
        public void sessionClosed(IoSession session) throws Exception {}
        public void sessionOpened(IoSession session) throws Exception {}
        public void sessionIdle(IoSession session, IdleStatus status) {}
        public void exceptionCaught(IoSession session, Throwable cause) {
        static IoBuffer RESULT = null;
    	public static String HTTP_200 = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-Length: 13\r\n\r\n" +
    			"hello world\r\n";
    	static {
        	RESULT = IoBuffer.allocate(32).setAutoExpand(true);
        public void messageReceived(IoSession session, Object message)
                throws Exception {
            if (message instanceof IoBuffer) {
            	IoBuffer buf = (IoBuffer) message;
            	int c = buf.get();
            	if (c == 'G' || c == 'g') {

    Nov 24 update Because the above Mina code doesn’t parse HTTP request and handle the necessary HTTP protocol, replaced with org.jboss.netty.example.http.snoop.HttpServer from Netty example, but removed all the string builder code from HttpRequestHandler.messageReceived() and just return a “hello world” result in HttpRequestHandler.writeResponse(). Please read the source code and the Netty documentation for more information.

    $ taskset -c 1-7 \
    java -server -Xmx1024m -Xms1024m -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -classpath . test.HttpServer 8080

    We use taskset to limit java only use cpu1-7, and not use cpu0, because we want cpu0 dedicate for system call(Linux use CPU0 for network interruptions).

    Go language, source code

    package main
    import (
    func HelloServer(c *http.Conn, req *http.Request) {
        io.WriteString(c, "hello, world!\n");
    func main() {
         runtime.GOMAXPROCS(8); // 8 cores
         http.Handle("/", http.HandlerFunc(HelloServer));
         err := http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil);
        if err != nil {
            panic("ListenAndServe: ", err.String())

    $ 6g httpd2.go
    $ 6l httpd2.6
    $ taskset -c 1-7 ./6.out

    1.4 Performance test client

    ApacheBench client, for 30, 100, 1,000, 5,000 concurrent threads
    ab -c 30 -n 1000000
    ab -c 100 -n 1000000
    1000 thread, 334 from 3 different machine
    ab -c 334 -n 334000
    5000 thread, 1667 from 3 different machine
    ab -c 1667 -n 334000

    2. Test results

    2.1 request per second

    30 (threads) 100 1,000 5,000
    Nginx html(1C) 21,301 21,331 23,746 23,502
    Nginx module(1C) 25,809 25,735 30,380 29,667
    Nginx module(Multi-core) 25,057 24,507 31,544 33,274
    Erlang(1C) 11,585 12,367 12,852 12,815
    Erlang(Multi-Core) 15,101 20,255 26,468 25,865
    Java, Mina2(without HTTP parse)
    30,631 26,846 31,911 31,653
    Java, Netty 24,152 24,423 25,487 25,521
    Go 14,080 14,748 15,799 16,110

    2.2 latency, 99% requests within(ms)

    30 100 1,000 5,000
    Nginx html(1C) 1 4 42 3,079
    Nginx module(1C) 1 4 32 3,047
    Nginx module(Multi-core) 1 6 205 3,036
    Erlang(1C) 3 8 629 6,337
    Erlang(Multi-Core) 2 7 223 3,084
    Java, Netty 1 3 3 3,084
    Go 26 33 47 9,005

    3. Notes

    * On large concurrent connections, C, Erlang, Java no big difference on their performance, results are very close.
    * Java runs better on small connections, but the code in this test doesn’t parse the HTTP request header (the MINA code).
    * Although Mr. Yu Feng (the Erlang guru in China) mentioned that Erlang performance better on single CPU(prevent context switch), but the result tells that Erlang has big latency(> 1S) under 1,000 or 5,000 connections.
    * Go language is very close to Erlang, but still not good under heavy load (5,000 threads)
    After redo 1,000 and 5,000 tests on Nov 18
    * Nginx module is the winner on 5,000 concurrent requests.
    * Although there is improvement space for Go, Go has the same performance from 30-5,000 threads.
    * Erlang process is impressive on large concurrent request, still as good as nginx (5,000 threads).

    4. Update Log

    Nov 12, change nginx.conf work_connections from 1024 to 10240
    Nov 13, add runtime.GOMAXPROCS(8); to go’s code, add sysctl -p env
    Nov 18, realized that ApacheBench itself is a bottleneck under 1,000 or 5,000 threads, so use 3 clients from 3 different machines to redo all tests of 1,000 and 5,000 concurrent tests.
    Nov 24, use Netty with full HTTP implementation to replace Mina 2 for the Java web server. Still very fast and low latency after added HTTP handle code.

    如想及时阅读Tim Yang的文章,可通过页面右上方扫码订阅最新更新。

    « | »


    1. erlang的没启用jit会慢很多 差不多是你测试的数据。

    2. NetSnail

      试试最新的go 的http server呢?

    3. erlang版本的在我的测试里 延时非常小 大概是几十ms. 我觉得这个测试的瓶颈在网卡 因为网卡每秒要中断100K次

    4. dennis



    5. Tim

      @yufeng 用了taskset -c 1-7, 就是专门释放CPU0来处理网卡中断

    6. If possible try redo the test on, 10 + cores.

    7. Tim

      @Stewart, i don’t have spare server with 10+ cores, and i think 8 core is enough, the bottleneck may not on CPU

    8. go的futex竞争太厉害了

      accept(3, {sa_family=AF_INET6, sin6_port=htons(55263), inet_pton(AF_INET6, “::ffff:″, &sin6_addr), sin6_flowinfo=0, sin6_scope_id=0}, [28]) = 8
      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      futex(0x80ca8ac, FUTEX_WAKE, 1) = 1
      fcntl(8, F_SETFD, FD_CLOEXEC) = 0
      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      futex(0x80ca8ac, FUTEX_WAKE, 1) = 1
      fcntl(8, F_GETFL) = 0x2 (flags O_RDWR)
      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      futex(0x80ca8ac, FUTEX_WAKE, 1) = 1
      fcntl(8, F_SETFL, O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK) = 0
      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      futex(0x80ca8ac, FUTEX_WAKE, 1) = 1
      setsockopt(8, SOL_TCP, TCP_NODELAY, [1], 4) = 0
      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      futex(0x80ca8ac, FUTEX_WAKE, 1) = 1

      futex(0x3f41d4, FUTEX_WAIT, 3, {1073741824, 0}) = 0
      read(8, “GET / HTTP/1.0\r\nUser-Agent: Apac”…, 4096) = 95
      write(8, “HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\nContent-Type: t”…, 73) = 73
      fcntl(8, F_GETFL) = 0x802 (flags O_RDWR|O_NONBLOCK)
      fcntl(8, F_SETFL, O_RDWR) = 0
      close(8) = 0

    9. 从系统调用和源码的实现中 看出go的goroutine的实现是 在os的线程跑 线程间通过 mutex保护的队列 来调度 goroutine.

      // Go scheduler |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:19:// The go scheduler’s job is to match ready-to-run goroutines (`g’s)
      // |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:128: // If main·init_function started other goroutines,
      // The go scheduler’s job is to match ready-to-run goroutines (`g’s) |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:151: printf(“\ngoroutine %d:\n”, g->goid);
      // with waiting-for-work schedulers (`m’s). If there are ready gs |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:279:// new goroutines.
      // and no waiting ms, ready() will start a new m running in a new |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:299:// Get the next goroutine that m should run.
      // OS thread, so that all ready gs can run simultaneously, up to a limit. |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:341: throw(“all goroutines are asleep – deadlock!”);
      // For now, ms never go away. |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:353: throw(“bad m->nextg in nextgoroutine”);
      // |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:411:// start looking for goroutines shortly.
      // By default, Go keeps only one kernel thread (m) running user code |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:522:// The goroutine g is about to enter a system call.
      // at a single time; other threads may be blocked in the operating system. |./src/pkg/runtime/#proc.c#:553:// The goroutine g exited its system call.
      // Setting the environment variable $GOMAXPROCS or calling |./src/pkg/sort/sort.go:10:// sorted by the routines in this package. The methods require that the
      // runtime.GOMAXPROCS() will change the number of user threads |Binary file ./src/pkg/sort/8.out matches
      // allowed to execute simultaneously. $GOMAXPROCS is thus an |./src/pkg/strconv/atof_test.go:96: // The atof routines return NumErrors wrapping
      // approximation of the maximum number of cores to use.

    10. 另外上面的测试 nginx 和erlang都做完整的http报文分析,这个需要时间哦。

    11. Hi Tim,

      Could you show us your nginx.conf for this benchmark? I think it’s a little bit unfair to nginx if you turned the CPU affinity switch (worker_cpu_affinity) off while other applications turned it on. Probably more tuning options could be used, I guess, such as deferred accept, accept_mutex, etc. BTW, it seems that your Java version server didn’t parse HTTP requests at all?

    12. go没用到epoll事件派遣 还是accept read write close这样的串行化。

    13. Tim

      changed nginx.conf worker_connections 10240;
      from 1024, nginx runs better under 5,000 threads
      Data already updated.

    14. Andrew

      Hi Tim,

      Could you test Go by compiling with gccgo? It’d be interesting to see the results with a better optimising compiler. 6g was build for speed for compilation so doesn’t optimise as well AFAIK.


    15. ah sorry I glanced and saw quad-core, not the expected dual quad-core ;)

    16. Tim

      @Andrew from official Go FAQ, use gccgo is not encouraged,
      “… Gccgo is a GCC front-end that can, with care, be linked with GCC-compiled C or C++ programs. However, because Go is garbage-collected it will be unwise to do so, at least naively. “,

      and from go/src/doc/gccgo_install.html

      Some Go features are not yet implemented in gccgo. As of 2009-11-06, the following are not implemented:
      * Garbage collection is not implemented. There is no way to free memory. Thus long running programs are not supported.
      * goroutines are implemented as NPTL threads with a fixed stack size. The number of goroutines that may be created at one time is limited.

      Without GC and goroutines, I think The test for gccgo doesn’t make sense, few people will build their project on gccgo.

    17. Alex Sterling

      So does this show that the Go language is very scalable? Can it be tested to the point where Go begins to drop?

    18. Tim

      FYI, Go test,
      8,000 threads, 5632.55
      10,000 threads, 5105.55

    19. jay

      You need to run java with -server, right?

    20. Java

      This test is far from fair. The Java code does not parse the incoming requests at all. It checks if the request starts with a “G” and simply writes the response. A language comparison should be done on a much lower level without layers and layers of library code involved.

    21. Mark

      How is your system tuned? As in how long are your connections in time_wait, what are your ephemeral port settings? These all contribute to potential performance issues.

    22. How many cores was the Go example using? Did you try enabling the goroutines to be multiplexed across multiple cores?

      You can use the GOMAXPROCS environment variable or see GOMAXPROCS in the runtime package. For an example of runtime usage see:


    23. Tim

      @jay, on amd64/x86_64, The default Java VM is server.
      @Java, yes, java doesn’t parse HTTP, i will add parse code if possible.
      @mark please see the new sysctl -p configuration in the post
      @Chris thanks, runtime.GOMAXPROCS(nCPU); does make sense, the change is significant, already update go’s data.

    24. It would be interesting if the numbers of CPU and memory consumption during the benchmark could be shown :)

    25. to Chris Double: Go goroutine scheduler GOMAXPROCS

      The go scheduler’s job is to match ready-to-run goroutines (`g’s)
      If main·init_function started other goroutines, The go scheduler’s job is to match ready-to-run goroutines (`g’s) with waiting-for-work schedulers (`m’s). If there are ready gs and no waiting ms, ready() will start a new m running in a new OS thread, so that all ready gs can run simultaneously, up to a limit.

      For now, ms never go away.

      the limit is GOMAXPROCS. so It helps only when system full load.

    26. GO 的那个还可以用 lockosthread来绑定cpu亲缘性

    27. Maybe add a full functional Java powered web server test is more convincing, eg: Jetty http://www.mortbay.org/jetty/ + a HelloWorld Handler/Servlet

    28. Koala Yeung

      测试 Go 的话,应该用 gccgo 而不是用 6g 来 compile

      6g / 8g 是用来测试 Go 码的可用性
      gccgo 才是用来 compile 实用程序的 compiler

    29. Koala Yeung

      还有,可以用 goroutine 吗?
      这比较能试到 Go 的主功能 concurrency 有多有效

    30. 先生、謝謝。
      I introcuce your very cool benchmark in my Japanese site.
      Thank you!

    31. Any people know why at 1000 threads, Erlang(Multi-Core) is faster than java, a little bit; but in 5000 threads, java win a little bit again??

    32. Tim

      Carfield, please ingore the deviation if it is < 3%, if you run an independent test several times, every time you get different result but always < 3%, we can think they have same performance.

    33. to Koala Yeung:

    34. to Koala Yeung:
      gccgo的goroutine还是thread实现 和6g的轻量级线程差很多。 gccgo还很不完善,目前能用的还是6g 6l系列。

    35. to Carfield Yim:
      due to erlang fair process scheduler, the cost and latency increase when >5000 threads. In this situation, enable hipe helps much.

    36. It would be great to see the same test done in an open load model, i.e. performance at certain arrival rates not current clients. A good tool for such a test is Tsung http://tsung.erlang-projects.org/

      It is also good to list the underlying IO libs each of the implementations uses.

      Another good Java candidate to be compared is Grizzly https://grizzly.dev.java.net/
      You can easily get a hello world server by modifying the code at http://weblogs.java.net/blog/jfarcand/archive/2008/07/extending_the_g.html

    37. Tim

      @yufeng there is no difference after enable hipe in my environment, with
      erlc +native +”{hipe, [o3]}” ehttpd.erl
      100, 5000 下比较过,测试结果基本上一样。

    38. I’d like to suggest to use Netty 3 instead of MINA 2 for Java, since it is known to perform better, and more actively maintained: http://www.jboss.org/netty/

      You will also find some information about Netty’s HTTP performance in the ‘Testimonials’ and ‘Performance’ page.

      There’s a simple HTTP server example in the ‘Documentation’ page, so it should not be very difficult to write a hello world web server quickly. Please feel free to contact me if you have any problem.

    39. Tim

      Trustin, thanks for the information, already replaced Mina with Netty in this test. Please update the page for the latest result.

    40. Cool, now the numbers are more reasonable :)
      Oh, forget to mention, nginx is a full-featured HTTP server, so it will send out more headers than some other servers above, e.g.:
      $ curl -i http://localhost/
      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Server: nginx/0.7.63
      Date: Wed, 25 Nov 2009 02:07:56 GMT
      Content-Type: text/html
      Content-Length: 13
      Connection: keep-alive

      Hello, world

    41. Thanks for the update and the number looks pretty nice! :)

      By the way, in “3. Notes”, “* Java runs better on small connections, but the code in this test doesn’t parse the HTTP request header.” now seems invalid? Also, I would replace the MINA source code from the page with the full Netty code since the test result has been replaced.

    42. Angel

      on erlanh -h 99999 seems overkill. A far lower value can is better as every process does very little porcessing so no much heap is used.

      You hit GC when the process dies son you are GCing 99999 that a lot of memory and is mainly unused.

      Try normal setup o a very low value as a 512 or 1024.

    43. D

      What you are testing? Socket performance? It’s roughly the same.

      There is no point in such type of tests. Write normal dynamic application (just wondering how you’ll do it with pure nginx ;-) ) and compare everything – development time, support, load, …

      All languages will be very close printing “Hello, World”:
      printf(“Hello, World”);
      print “Hello, World”
      Console.WriteLine(“Hello, World”);

    44. Tim

      To D:
      Every http connection in this test has its own session, the program maintains all sessions and concurrent logic, not just “Socket performance”, after adding a little session state or logic code, it will become a real business server.

      if you compare these results with a Ruby/PHP… there will be different, and if your own server need to handle 5,000+ concurrent connection, this test may informative for you.

    45. D

      To Tim:

      May be. Sorry, I haven’t checked the source code.

      But still not sure in this type of tests. I mean, I can’t see how useful they can be for someone who wants to create next Google. Very different languages can give you success: Facebook chat uses Erlang, Twitter was using Ruby, StackOverflow is written in C#, Google is using Python, eBay uses Java, …

    46. Lev

      why not compare a pure cpp project called ‘poco’ too, it also provide a net framework and http server sample as http://pocoproject.org/wiki/index.php/Tutorialftpclient

    47. maybe these files can help scale the GO language performance, but i know fea about the GO, so i am not sure.


    48. You get very strange results for NGINX. I write custom module for nginx with some business logic (3 select to TimesTen DB). I use for tests HP Proliant BL460c G1
      blade with 2 4 core CPU
      model name : Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5345 @ 2.33GHz
      stepping : 8
      cpu MHz : 2327.203
      cache size : 4096 KB
      I get ~ 80 000 request per second at ab -c 100.

      #uname -a
      Linux timesten1.testik.com 2.6.18-92.el5 #1 SMP Tue Apr 29 13:16:15 EDT 2008 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

    49. Tim


      did you use the ab -k (keepalive) option? I think it is hard to reach 80k rps without -k.

    50. yes! I use -k
      This is my string
      ab -k -c 100 -n 20000000 “${URL}” >> ${LOG}

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