• Email:
  • Feeds

  • C, Erlang, Java and Go Web Server performance test

    I had tested a hello world web server in C, Erlang, Java and the Go programming language.
    * C, use the well-known high performance web server nginx, with a hello world nginx module
    * Erlang/OTP
    * Java, using the MINA 2.0 framework, now the JBoss Netty framework.
    * Go, http://golang.org/

    1. Test environment

    1.1 Hardware/OS

    2 Linux boxes in a gigabit ethernet LAN, 1 server and 1 test client
    Linux Centos 5.2 64bit
    Intel(R) Xeon(R) CPU E5410  @ 2.33GHz (L2 cache: 6M), Quad-Core * 2
    8G memory
    SCSI disk (standalone disk, no other access)

    1.2 Software version

    nginx, nginx-0.7.63.tar.gz
    Erlang, otp_src_R13B02-1.tar.gz
    Java, jdk-6u17-linux-x64.bin, mina-2.0.0-RC1.tar.gz, netty-3.2.0.ALPHA1-dist.tar.bz2
    Go, hg clone -r release https://go.googlecode.com/hg/ $GOROOT (Nov 12, 2009)

    1.3 Source code and configuration

    Linux, run sysctl -p

    net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0
    net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1
    net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0
    kernel.sysrq = 0
    kernel.core_uses_pid = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1
    kernel.msgmnb = 65536
    kernel.msgmax = 65536
    kernel.shmmax = 68719476736
    kernel.shmall = 4294967296
    kernel.panic = 1
    net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 8192	873800	8738000
    net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096	655360	6553600
    net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024	65000
    net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
    net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

    # ulimit -n
    150000

    C: ngnix hello world module, copy the code ngx_http_hello_module.c from http://timyang.net/web/nginx-module/

    in nginx.conf, set “worker_processes  1; worker_connections 10240″ for 1 cpu test, set “worker_processes  4; worker_connections 2048″ for multi-core cpu test. Turn off all access or debug log in nginx.conf, as follows

    worker_processes  1;
    worker_rlimit_nofile 10240;
    events {
        worker_connections  10240;
    }
    http {
        include       mime.types;
        default_type  application/octet-stream;
        sendfile        on;
        keepalive_timeout  0;
        server {
            listen       8080;
            server_name  localhost;
            location / {
                root   html;
                index  index.html index.htm;
            }
              location /hello {
                ngx_hello_module;
                hello 1234;
            }
    
            error_page   500 502 503 504  /50x.html;
            location = /50x.html {
                root   html;
            }
        }
    }

    $ taskset -c 1 ./nginx or $ taskset -c 1-7 ./nginx

    Erlang hello world server
    The source code is available at yufeng’s blog, see http://blog.yufeng.info/archives/105
    Just copy the code after “cat ehttpd.erl”, and compile it.

    $ erlc ehttpd.erl
    $ taskset -c 1 erl +K true +h 99999 +P 99999 -smp enable +S 2:1 -s ehttpd
    $ taskset -c 1-7 erl +K true -s ehttpd
    We use taskset to limit erlang vm to use only 1 CPU/core or use all CPU cores. The 2nd line is run in single CPU mode, and the 3rd line is run in multi-core CPU mode.

    Java source code, save the 2 class as HttpServer.java and HttpProtocolHandler.java, and do necessary import.

    public class HttpServer {
        public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
            SocketAcceptor acceptor = new NioSocketAcceptor(4);
            acceptor.setReuseAddress( true );
    
    		int port = 8080;
    		String hostname = null;
    		if (args.length > 1) {
    			hostname = args[0];
    			port = Integer.parseInt(args[1]);
    		}
    
            // Bind
            acceptor.setHandler(new HttpProtocolHandler());
            if (hostname != null)
            	acceptor.bind(new InetSocketAddress(hostname, port));
            else
            	acceptor.bind(new InetSocketAddress(port));
    
            System.out.println("Listening on port " + port);
            Thread.currentThread().join();
        }
    }
    
    public class HttpProtocolHandler extends IoHandlerAdapter {
        public void sessionCreated(IoSession session) {
            session.getConfig().setIdleTime(IdleStatus.BOTH_IDLE, 10);
            session.setAttribute(SslFilter.USE_NOTIFICATION);
        }
    
        public void sessionClosed(IoSession session) throws Exception {}
        public void sessionOpened(IoSession session) throws Exception {}
        public void sessionIdle(IoSession session, IdleStatus status) {}
        public void exceptionCaught(IoSession session, Throwable cause) {
            session.close(true);
        }
    
        static IoBuffer RESULT = null;
    	public static String HTTP_200 = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\r\nContent-Length: 13\r\n\r\n" +
    			"hello world\r\n";
    	static {
        	RESULT = IoBuffer.allocate(32).setAutoExpand(true);
        	RESULT.put(HTTP_200.getBytes());
        	RESULT.flip();
        }
        public void messageReceived(IoSession session, Object message)
                throws Exception {
            if (message instanceof IoBuffer) {
            	IoBuffer buf = (IoBuffer) message;
            	int c = buf.get();
            	if (c == 'G' || c == 'g') {
            		session.write(RESULT.duplicate());
            	}
            	session.close(false);
            }
        }
    }

    Nov 24 update Because the above Mina code doesn’t parse HTTP request and handle the necessary HTTP protocol, replaced with org.jboss.netty.example.http.snoop.HttpServer from Netty example, but removed all the string builder code from HttpRequestHandler.messageReceived() and just return a “hello world” result in HttpRequestHandler.writeResponse(). Please read the source code and the Netty documentation for more information.

    $ taskset -c 1-7 \
    java -server -Xmx1024m -Xms1024m -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -classpath . test.HttpServer 192.168.10.1 8080

    We use taskset to limit java only use cpu1-7, and not use cpu0, because we want cpu0 dedicate for system call(Linux use CPU0 for network interruptions).

    Go language, source code

    package main
    import (
       "http";
        "io";
    )
    func HelloServer(c *http.Conn, req *http.Request) {
        io.WriteString(c, "hello, world!\n");
    }
    func main() {
         runtime.GOMAXPROCS(8); // 8 cores
         http.Handle("/", http.HandlerFunc(HelloServer));
         err := http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil);
        if err != nil {
            panic("ListenAndServe: ", err.String())
        }
    }

    $ 6g httpd2.go
    $ 6l httpd2.6
    $ taskset -c 1-7 ./6.out

    1.4 Performance test client

    ApacheBench client, for 30, 100, 1,000, 5,000 concurrent threads
    ab -c 30 -n 1000000 http://192.168.10.1:8080/
    ab -c 100 -n 1000000 http://192.168.10.1:8080/
    1000 thread, 334 from 3 different machine
    ab -c 334 -n 334000 http://192.168.10.1:8080/
    5000 thread, 1667 from 3 different machine
    ab -c 1667 -n 334000 http://192.168.10.1:8080/

    2. Test results

    2.1 request per second

    30 (threads) 100 1,000 5,000
    Nginx html(1C) 21,301 21,331 23,746 23,502
    Nginx module(1C) 25,809 25,735 30,380 29,667
    Nginx module(Multi-core) 25,057 24,507 31,544 33,274
    Erlang(1C) 11,585 12,367 12,852 12,815
    Erlang(Multi-Core) 15,101 20,255 26,468 25,865
    Java, Mina2(without HTTP parse)
    30,631 26,846 31,911 31,653
    Java, Netty 24,152 24,423 25,487 25,521
    Go 14,080 14,748 15,799 16,110

    c_erlang_java_go
    2.2 latency, 99% requests within(ms)

    30 100 1,000 5,000
    Nginx html(1C) 1 4 42 3,079
    Nginx module(1C) 1 4 32 3,047
    Nginx module(Multi-core) 1 6 205 3,036
    Erlang(1C) 3 8 629 6,337
    Erlang(Multi-Core) 2 7 223 3,084
    Java, Netty 1 3 3 3,084
    Go 26 33 47 9,005

    3. Notes

    * On large concurrent connections, C, Erlang, Java no big difference on their performance, results are very close.
    * Java runs better on small connections, but the code in this test doesn’t parse the HTTP request header (the MINA code).
    * Although Mr. Yu Feng (the Erlang guru in China) mentioned that Erlang performance better on single CPU(prevent context switch), but the result tells that Erlang has big latency(> 1S) under 1,000 or 5,000 connections.
    * Go language is very close to Erlang, but still not good under heavy load (5,000 threads)
    After redo 1,000 and 5,000 tests on Nov 18
    * Nginx module is the winner on 5,000 concurrent requests.
    * Although there is improvement space for Go, Go has the same performance from 30-5,000 threads.
    * Erlang process is impressive on large concurrent request, still as good as nginx (5,000 threads).

    4. Update Log

    Nov 12, change nginx.conf work_connections from 1024 to 10240
    Nov 13, add runtime.GOMAXPROCS(8); to go’s code, add sysctl -p env
    Nov 18, realized that ApacheBench itself is a bottleneck under 1,000 or 5,000 threads, so use 3 clients from 3 different machines to redo all tests of 1,000 and 5,000 concurrent tests.
    Nov 24, use Netty with full HTTP implementation to replace Mina 2 for the Java web server. Still very fast and low latency after added HTTP handle code.

    142 Comments  »

    1. Though adults can develop tinnitus symptoms, seniors are much more vulnerable to it.
      Besides their age, elderly people happen to be prone to suffering from a weakening
      of their body systems, especially their senses.

      Chances are they already have an altered smell and taste,
      could possibly have hearing problems, or could have eyesight problems.

    2. Kate says:

      Hi, after reading this amazing post i am also happy to share my experience here with mates.

    3. With the latest study from PEW Research stating
      that 95% of teens have access to the Internet, 80% of
      kids have cell phones and 48% have data plans, providing a safe cyber-space should be a priority for all parents.
      However Yahoo marketing and other pay per click search engines offer some excellent traffic at a more reasonable price.
      Daily, even hourly, businesses can see how many individuals clicked on their ads and the traffic that is
      being driven to their website.

    4. What a material of un-ambiguity and preserveness of precious familiarity
      regarding unexpected feelings.

    5. Google says:

      1- Find a product to promote, something you feel passionate about and that
      you know people will want to buy it. It has the highest ROI (Return of Invesment) in all advertisement channels.
      Reputation Defense Online an around the world Cyber Investigation along with Litigation Assistance Agency for Net Defamation, often receives inquiries from attorneys along with law enforcement agencies on the way to subpoena Google’s Legal Division.

    6. This article givees clear idea for the new viewers
      of blogging, hat genuinely how to do running a blog.

    7. Nice blog here! Also your site loads uup very fast!
      What web hodt are you using? Can I get your affiliate
      link to yoour host? I wiish my web site loaded up as
      quickly as yours lol

    8. First of all I wwant to say fantastic blog! I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind.

      I was curious to fibd out how you center yourself and clear your hesd before writing.
      I’ve had trouble clearing mmy thoughts in getting my ideas
      out there. I truly do enjoy writing however it justt seems like the firsst 10 to 15 minutes are generally lost just trying to figure
      out how too begin. Any suggestions or hints?
      Thanks!

    9. When someone writes an paragraph he/she keeps the plan of a user in his/her miund that
      how a user can know it. So that’s why this piece of writing
      is great. Thanks!

    10. Google says:

      It will also increase the ranking of your website on search engines and will
      drive more traffic to your website. The website speed test at
      Secret Search Engine Labs will analyze how fast a page on your site is loading and give you tips on how to improve it.
      And then on March 20, the world’s largest paid private blog network – BMR – announced
      that its vast network had been almost entirely de-indexed by Google, causing chaos in the
      internet marketing industries.

    11. Having read this I believed it was really enlightening.

      I appreciate you spending some time and effort to put this informative article together.
      I once again find myself spending a significant amount of time both reading and posting comments.
      But so what, it was still worthwhile!

    12. Niko Bellic est mentionné au cours du premier hold-up, décrit comme un «européen de l’est” qui s’est fait un nom de retour à Liberty
      City et est sorti de l’entreprise.

    13. carmel says:

      Thanks for finally talking about >C, Erlang, Java and Go Web Server performance test – Tim[后端技术] <Liked it!

    14. Rueben says:

      Do you guys still do linkbuilding for your site?
      Many people urge people to avoid that anymore
      I will defo be coming back, its a great site

    15. Have you ever considered creating an e-book or guest authoring on other blogs?
      I have a blog centered on the same ideas you discuss and would love to
      have you share some stories/information. I know my subscribers would
      appreciate your work. If you’re even remotely interested, feel
      free to shoot me an email.

    16. Howdy! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist
      with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good
      results. If you know of any please share. Thank you!

    RSS feed for comments on this post, TrackBack URI

    Leave a Comment